Seventy-seven per cent of most writers whom presented to us in 2012 didn’t format the “References” heading precisely or failed to add one in the beginning.

Seventy-seven per cent of most writers whom presented to us in 2012 didn’t format the “References” heading precisely or failed to add one in the beginning.

Guide List

This outcome is nearly the same as the only concerning the “Abstract” heading because those 2 kinds of headings are formatted into the same manner.

Information: Before even composing your sources, make sure that always you’ve got a “References” going. It ought to be focused and formatted just as the remaining portion of the text.


The info analysis implies that 90.9% of all of the authors made three or maybe more mistakes when formatting their sources. Although this quantity is extremely impressive, it offers a number of APA design errors such as for example: incorrect utilization of commas, complete stops, ampersands, italics, or general wrong formatting regarding the various kinds of sources.

Advice: The easiest method how to write an introduction paragraph for an essay in order to avoid errors into the guide list is by using referencing software- there are freeware programs which will do an excellent work. They’re going to help save you lots of frustration and make it easier also for you really to arrange your sources. You should check our post that introduces a comparable system. In the event that you nevertheless desire to format the guide list all on your own, make certain you learn how to format the various kinds of recommendations (age.g. books, log articles, dissertations). The majority of the other guidelines, for instance the utilization of punctuation markings and formatting the name, stick to the exact same logic and are not too difficult to master. Below are a few extremely mistakes that are common this category:

  • Something that a large amount of pupils do is they capitalize all words that are major the name for the guide. You ought to remember that just the first term should be capitalized. In the event that name has a colon or dash, the term just after it will be capitalized.
  • Try not to omit the ampersand whenever writing the guide for a ongoing work compiled by 2 or higher writers.
  • Be sure that you utilize periods correctly- particularly when composing the writers’ initials.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

Of all documents we received in 2012, 88.6% had one or even more omitted DOIs. Providing DOIs for log articles might seem such as a thing that is trivial do and that is probably one of many factors why plenty of pupils did not do this.

Information: Journal articles which are posted online frequently provide a DOI in the page that is first. Additionally, most publishers that are journal this type of home elevators their site. Plenty of articles which were posted within the last ten to fifteen years as a rule have DOIs, but it’s well you are referencing has one if you check whether each article. It is possible to find out more about DOIs right right right here.

In addition, there are other less typical APA design errors in referencing sources, as presented in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Other APA that is common style within the guide list.

Talking about errors produced by pupils into the part of the sources may be the failure to list all cited sources into the guide list. This error can easily go unnoticed whenever you cite sources, but keep composing the recommendations for later on. The way that is easiest to prevent this error would be to give a guide for the cited source immediately. Also, you can make use of the search motor in term to see if all cited sources come in the guide list (and vice versa). This tactic is additionally helpful for finding spelling inconsistencies between in-text citations and also the guide list, an error that some 45% associated with the writers did.

Although the correct formatting of the sources is essential, its also wise to look closely at the layout that is general for the guide list. As an example, it will start on a brand new web page and the references must certanly be formatted with hanging indentation (see APA, 2009).

Furthermore, make sure the sources are purchased properly. They must be purchased 1) alphabetically and 2) in accordance with the quantity of writers and 12 months of book (if relevant).


With therefore rules that are many keep in mind, formatting your paper in APA design could be tricky. Nevertheless, having a patience that is little experience you certainly will quickly grasp the fundamental guidelines. In the APA style Q&A section of our website if you ever need help with an APA style question, you can always ask it.


I wish to thank the JEPS downline, and specially Ezra Bottequin, whom helped me collect the info because of this post.


United States Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of this American Psychological Association (6 th ed.). Washington DC: Author.

Martin Vasilev

Martin Vasilev is just a year that is final student of Psychology in the University of Sofia, Bulgaria, additionally the writer of a few of the most popular articles on JEPS Bulletin (see as an example, their post regarding the most typical errors in APA style ended up being the absolute most read within the JEPS Bulletin in 2013 along with his post on composing literary works reviews, that has been reprinted into the MBA Edge, a magazine for potential postgraduate pupils in Malaysia)

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